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INRA GABI Unit

GABI : Génétique Animale et Biologie IntégrativeUnité Mixte de Recherche INRA - AgroParisTech

The National Observatory for Bovine Anomalies

National Observatory of Bovine Anomalies
© INRA
The appearance of genetic anomalies is inevitable. They result from certain random DNA mutations. Their eradication has become much easier with the recent progress in molecular tools. The most critical point is the observation of their emergence and their clinical description which the ONAB coordinates at the national level.

Genetic anomalies emerge on a regular basis in livestock populations. Their appearance is practically inevitable.They are the result of DNA mutations that we cannot control. Even though they are not heterozygous (the mutation is then considered as being recessive), they can spread in a population over several generations without being recognized. Active surveillance is therefore necessary to detect these emerging abnormalities remembering that these first cases are detected late and are always made after the original mutation has occurred and spread throughout a population.

Searching for a mutation responsable for a specific anomaly requires several steps :

1) Identification of the emergence

2) Clinical description of the anomaly. This is a crutial step in order to guarentee the uniqueness of the pathology studied and to choose the appropriate direction for the genetic research

3) Sample collection (blood, ears, ....) from affected individuals in order to obtain DNA

4) Genetic analyses using genotyping and sequencing

Much progress has been made recently in genomics tools, providing a way to isolate a gene responsable for an anomaly much more rapidly. A diagnostic DNA test which allows the identification of diseases, carrier and non-carrier animals, is the only efficient way to eradicate anomalies in a population.

The first steps of observation of an emergence, clinical characterisation and sampling are the most difficult and require organisation and coordination and the intervention of many different actors on the field. Cécile Grohs (INRA) and Coralie Danchin (Institut de l'Elevage) are in charge of these observations coordinated by the National Observatory for Bovine Anomalies.

References

Capel C., Duchesne A. 2010 Du nouveau au sein de l’Observatoire National des Anomalies Bovines. BTIA, 132, 40.

Boichard D., Floriot S., Capel C., Duchesne A. 2010. Abord des anomalies génétiques bovines. Le Point Vétérinaire, 311, 66-69.

Ducos A., Manciaux L., Malafosse A., Eggen A. 2008. L'observatoire national des anomalies bovines : objectifs, actions mises en œuvre et premiers résultats. Journées Nationales GTV, Nantes, 29 mai 2008, 491-494.

Duchesne A., Ducos A., Manciaux L., Eggen A. 2006. Des marqueurs génétiques pour l’éradication des anomalies. BTIA, 120, 19-21.

See also