Context and Stakes
In pluricellular organisms, cells need to communicate amongst themselves in order to ensure survival. Thus, depending on their state, they share signals (proteins, lipids, cytokines, hormones, ….) to maintain homeostasis. In addition to these well- described signals, cells can exchange much more complex information, as extracellular vesicles (apoptotic bodies, microparticles, exosomes, ….). These vesicles contain RNAm, small RNAnc (mcroRNA), signaling proteins, growth factors and bioactive lipids. Their content is modified with the physiological state of the secreting and recipient cells integrating these complex signals by modifying the expression of their genome. It was recently shown that this type of communication is also used by bacteria, parasites, plants, viruses and it could participate in the exchange of information between species. The sudden interest for these vesicles is due to their capacity to transport information and notably genetic information. All fields of biology are concerned; their use as biomarkers and in therapy has already generated increasing attention.
This first meeting of French laboratories working in the field of extracellular vesicles (microvesicles and exosomes), organized by an extracellular group of Inra scientists led by Sophie Rome (AlimH Division, Lyon), Pascal Mermillod and Laurent Galio (PHASE Division, Nouzilly and Jouy) and Patrice Martin (AG Division, Jouy), has allowed the hundred participants representing approximately 60 laboratories belonging to Inserm, the CNRS, and INRA to share research in their fields and methodological expertise. During these two days which favored intra and inter-organization collaborations, a morning was dedicated to studies led by Inra scientists that are developing innovative projects in this field around metabolic diseases, the mother-child dialogue, maternal milk, animal reproduction, virology and the microbiome within the AlimH, AG, Phase and Mica Divisions of the Inra. This type of communication is also used by parasites and plants and the field will probably concern other Inra Divisions in the near future. As a conclusion to this first day, presentations were given on Isolation Methods of Extracellular Vesicles (P. Colosetti, Laboratoire CarMeN, Lyon), Heterogeneity, biological significance and implications (C. Théry, INSERM U932, Institut Curie, Paris), Biogenesis and visualization (G. Van Niel, CNRS UMR144, Institut Curie, Paris) and their Therapeutic uses (R. Andriantsitohaina, INSERM U1063, Angers).
The second day, chaired by Clotilde Théry and Guillaume Van Niel (Institut Curie, Paris) was focused on a broad horizon of research led in the field nationally, punctuated by talks by sponsors: Malvern (A. Audfray, Nanoparticle tracking Analyzer-Nanosight), ParticleMetrix (H. Wachernig, Nano/zeta sizer), IZON (C. Roesch, qNano, qSEC), who contributed financially to the meeting.
Following this meeting, it was decided that the whole scientific community would get together once a year for an annual meeting and to create a French Society for extracellular vesicle research, which would be the largest in this field internationally.
Scientific in the immediate future, global reach and notoriety of the Inra