Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free: https://www.ghostery.com/fr/products/

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site: http://www.youronlinechoices.com/fr/controler-ses-cookies/, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Realytics
Google Analytics
Spoteffects
Optimizely

Targeted advertising cookies

DoubleClick
Mediarithmics

The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at cil-dpo@inra.fr or by post at:

INRA
24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal AgroParisTech Université Paris-Saclay

INRA GABI Unit

GABI : Génétique Animale et Biologie IntégrativeUnité Mixte de Recherche INRA - AgroParisTech

Characterization of the gene responsible for the absence of horns in cattle

Two alleles for the Polled locus responsible for the absence of horns in cattle were recently discovered. The first mutation has been identified but four other candidates are possible for the second allele. The study describes a complementary phenotype on several rows of eyelashes associated with the absence of horns. Expression studies suggest that lincRNA is probably responsible for the polled phenotype. Finally, the OLIG2, FOXL2 and XFP2 genes are involved in the differentiation of the horn bud, indicating for the first time a link between horn determinism in sheep, cattle and goats.

Context and Stakes

The polled locus, a dominant locus responsible for the absence of horns, is present in several breeds. It is a genetic alternative to dehorning, a generalized practice that is criticized for the sufferance it causes animals. The locus was located in the 1990s on chromosome 1 of cattle and since then has been the object of much research. The locus remained unlocated for a long time since it is found in an area of 400 kbases not known for any particular role.

Results

In 2013 a German article described candidate mutations. In our article and in partnership with this team, we indicate that the results provide additional data and functional arguments. Thus we confirm the presence of two distinct alleles named "celtiques" (for the Angus breed) and "frisons". The first has been identified with certainty whereas 4 candidate mutations are listed for the second. A particular complementary phenotype of several rows of eylashes is described as being associated with the absence of horns. Expression studies suggest that lincRNA, which has an unknown function elsewhere, is probably responsible for the absence of the development of a horn bud and therefore of the polled phenotype. Finally, we showed that the OLIG2, FOXL2 and XFP2 genes are implicated in the differentiation of the horn bud, indicating for the first time an association of horn determinism in sheep, cattle and goats.

Perspectives

The AKELOS project provides the following perspectives:

  • Understanding the role of this long non-coding RNA.
  • Decrypting other phenotypes associated with horning, in particular for the type I scurs syndrome; understanding the causes of different "hornless" phenotypes identified in order to study the associated risks. Indeed, it is known that the polled gene appears as an exception since in many cases, the hornless phenotype is associated with very deleterious effects.
  • Integrating the absence of horns in the objectives of selection programs for populations that have made the choice.

The AKELOS project is one of the subjects treated by the ICSA Carnot Institute.

Valorization

An article in Plos One (Allais-Bonnet et al) follows up on two articles in the same journal describing two other genes implicated in horning,  TWIST1 and ZEB2.

The mutations are subjected to tests to confirm the presence of the Polled gene and to distinguish between homozygotes and heterozygotes.

Bibliography

Allais-Bonnet A, Grohs C, Medugorac I, Krebs S, Djari A, et al. (2013) Novel Insights into the Bovine Polled Phenotype and Horn Ontogenesis in Bovidae. PLoS ONE 8(5): e63512.