Nouvelles publications du laboratoire
Intermittent access to liquid sucrose differentially modulates energy intake and related central pathways in control or high-fat fed mice. Soto M, Chaumontet C, Even PC, Nadkarni N, Piedcoq J, Darcel N, Tomé D, Fromentin G. Physiol Behav (2014).
Intake of sodas has been shown to increase energy intake and to contribute to obesity in humans and in animal models, although the magnitude and importance of these effects are still debated. Moreover, intake of sugar sweetened beverages is often associated with high-fat food consumption in humans. We studied two different accesses to a sucrose-sweetened water (SSW, 12.3%, a concentration similar to that usually found in sugar sweetened beverages) in C57BL/6 mice fed a normal-fat (NF) or a high-fat (HF) diet in a scheduled access (7.5h). NF-fed and HF-fed mice received during 5weeks access to water, to SSW continuously for 7.5h (SSW), or to water plus SSW for 2h (randomly-chosen time slot for only 5 random days/week) (SSW-2h). Mouse preference for SSW was greater in HF-fed mice than NF-fed mice. Continuous SSW access induced weight gain whatever the diet and led to greater caloric intake than mice drinking water in NF-fed mice and in the first three weeks in HF-fed mice. In HF-fed mice, 2h-intermittent access to SSW induced a greater body weight gain than mice drinking water, and led to hyperphagia on the HF diet when SSW was accessible compared to days without SSW 2h-access (leading to greater overall caloric intake), possibly through inactivation of the anorexigenic neuropeptide POMC in the hypothalamus. This was not observed in NF-fed mice, but 2h-intermittent access to SSW stimulated the expression of dopamine, opioid and endocannabinoid receptors in the nucleus accumbens compared to water-access. In conclusion, in mice, a sucrose solution provided 2h-intermittently and a high-fat diet has combined effects on peripheral and central homeostatic systems involved in food intake regulation, a finding which has significant implications for human obesity.
Natural isotopic signatures of variations in body nitrogen fluxes: a compartmental model analysis. Poupin N, Mariotti F, Huneau JF, Hermier D, Fouillet H. PLoS Comput Biol (2014).
Body tissues are generally 15N-enriched over the diet, with a discrimination factor (Δ15N) that varies among tissues and individuals as a function of their nutritional and physiopathological condition. However, both 15N bioaccumulation and intra- and inter-individual Δ15N variations are still poorly understood, so that theoretical models are required to understand their underlying mechanisms. Using experimental Δ15N measurements in rats, we developed a multi-compartmental model that provides the first detailed representation of the complex functioning of the body's Δ15N system, by explicitly linking the sizes and Δ15N values of 21 nitrogen pools to the rates and isotope effects of 49 nitrogen metabolic fluxes. We have shown that (i) besides urea production, several metabolic pathways (e.g., protein synthesis, amino acid intracellular metabolism, urea recycling and intestinal absorption or secretion) are most probably associated with isotope fractionation and together contribute to 15N accumulation in tissues, (ii) the Δ15N of a tissue at steady-state is not affected by variations of its P turnover rate, but can vary according to the relative orientation of tissue free amino acids towards oxidation vs. protein synthesis, (iii) at the whole-body level, Δ15N variations result from variations in the body partitioning of nitrogen fluxes (e.g., urea production, urea recycling and amino acid exchanges), with or without changes in nitrogen balance, (iv) any deviation from the optimal amino acid intake, in terms of both quality and quantity, causes a global rise in tissue Δ15N, and (v) Δ15N variations differ between tissues depending on the metabolic changes involved, which can therefore be identified using simultaneous multi-tissue Δ15N measurements. This work provides proof of concept that Δ15N measurements constitute a new promising tool to investigate how metabolic fluxes are nutritionally or physiopathologically reorganized or altered. The existence of such natural and interpretable isotopic biomarkers promises interesting applications in nutrition and health.
Effects of lactoferrin on intestinal epithelial cell growth and differentiation: an in vivo and in vitro study. Blais A, Fan C, Voisin T, Aattouri N, Dubarry M, Blachier F, Tomé D. Biometals (2014).
This study was designed to analyse the effects of human (h) and bovine lactoferrin (bLF) on the growth and differentiation of intestinal cells using the mice model supplemented with Lactoferrin (LF) and the enterocyte-like model of Caco-2 cells which spontaneously differentiate after confluency. In mice, bLF supplementation increased jejunal villus height and the expression of several intestinal brush border membrane enzymes activities. Addition of bLF or hLF to undifferentiated Caco-2 cells was able to increase cell proliferation with confluency being reached more rapidly. Moreover, when Caco-2 cells were grown in the presence of LF for 3 weeks, brush-border membrane-associated enzyme activities i.e. sucrase, alkaline phosphatase and neutral aminopeptidase, as well as the L-glutamate transporter expression were all increased indicating an increased Caco-2 cell differentiation. Accordingly, cDNA Atlas array and Western blot analysis of cell cycle proteins shown a decreased expression of Cdck2 and an increased TAF1 expression; these proteins being implicated in the regulation of numerous genes related to cellular proliferation and differentiation. These modifications were associated with an inhibition of Caco-2 cell spontaneous apoptosis. Altogether, our results indicate that LF increase in vivo and in vitro enterocyte differentiation. In addition, LF was found to increase in vitro enterocyte proliferation resulting in higher cell density in cell flasks, an effect that was likely partly due to a reduction of the cellular apoptosis. The different stimulation patterns observed for the different parameters associated with cell differentiation in relationship with specific gene regulation is discussed.